While the production and use of energy is integral to daily life, it inevitably impacts the environment and draws on scarce resources. In the last thirty years, energy efficiency and energy conservation have been seen as an increasingly important way to reduce energy use. Campaigns that have sought to address demand have so far concentrated on raising awareness and providing information, but this has not changed behaviour significantly. For example, the UK Government has tried to change behaviour by taking a generalised, mass- marketing approach which appears to have had little significant impact. Foundations and NGOs may, however, be better placed to change behaviour, as they have longer time horizons, are better positioned to take certain kinds of risks and are sometimes better resourced to start or finance a programme.